What Is General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade

Among the original GATT members, Syria[19][20], Lebanon[21] and the LICO Yugoslavia have not re-joined the WTO. Given that Yugoslavia (renamed in Serbia and Montenegro and later two shared accession negotiations) is not recognised as a direct successor to the SFRY; Therefore, its application is considered new (non-GATT). On 4 May 2010, the WTO General Council decided to set up a working group to review Syria`s application for WTO membership. [22] [23] The WTO parties terminated the 1947 GATT formal agreement on 31 December 1995. Montenegro became a member in 2012, while Serbia is in the decision-making phase and is expected to become a member of the WTO in the future. The fifth cycle was held again in Geneva and lasted from 1960 to 1962. The discussions were named after U.S. Treasury Secretary and former Undersecretary of State Douglas Dillon, who first proposed the talks. Twenty-six countries participated in the cycle. In addition to reducing tariffs by more than $4.9 billion, it has also led to discussions on the creation of the European Economic Community (EEC). The TRIPS Treaty quickly became controversial because it was considered that emerging countries would not be allowed to protect the health and well-being of their citizens for the sole purpose of preserving the patent rights (i.e.

profits) of multinational pharmaceutical companies. As a result, members of the 2001 WTO Ministerial Conference, which met in Doha, Qatar, adopted the “Doha Declaration on the TRIPS and Public Health Agreement.” The declaration stated that TRIPS include, flexibly, between Member States the possibility of circumventing public health protection rights in the event of a national emergency or other emergencies (each Member State can determine what is qualified on the basis of its own criteria). In addition, countries could restrict trade for national security reasons. These include patent protection, copyright and public morality. Agriculture has been essentially excluded from previous agreements, as it has been granted special status in the areas of import quotas and export subsidies, with slight reserves. However, at the time of the Uruguay Round, many countries considered the agricultural exception so egregious that they refused to sign a new no-move agreement for agricultural products. These fourteen countries were known as the “Cairns Group” and consisted mainly of small and medium-sized agricultural exporters such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia and New Zealand. At the same time, 15 countries focused on negotiating a simple trade agreement. They agreed to remove trade restrictions on $10 billion or one-fifth of the world`s trade zone.

A total of 23 countries signed the GATT agreement on 30 October 1947, paving the way for its implementation on 30 June 1948. It is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which was part of the Agreement on Health Protection and Plant Protection (SPS). It contains the fundamental principle that its requirements must be based on sound scientific knowledge, essential to avoid barriers to unfavourable trade, and provides that codex Alimentarius standards are fully taken into account. The SPS agreement applies to all relevant measures that could affect international trade and prohibits measures with an inconsistent or disguised protectionist effect, unless they are reasonable and based on sound scientific evidence. Article 5 clarifies this issue by providing that health and plant health measures must be based on a risk assessment, taking into account, in particular, internationally recognized assessment and control techniques.

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