The existence of fundamental disagreements between the Soviet Union and the United States prevented the conclusion of a peace agreement with Germany. The founding of the Federal Republic of Germany in September 1949 was facilitated by the fact that the three Western occupying powers had unified their zones economically and put in place procedures for the re-establishment of a German nation (London Convention on Germany, June 1948). After also defining the respective areas of competence for the future state and the occupiers (the Washington Agreements on Germany, April 1949), they began to entrust an increasingly important role to the former. Finally, a simple peace protocol, the Treaty of Paris (October 1954), ended the occupation and replaced it with the presence of “security forces”. The treaty was approved by the Senate on April 1, 1955. The ceasefire was in fact a German capitulation, because its conditions put an end to any possibility of Germany continuing the war. Similar agreements have already been signed by Bulgaria, Turkey and Austria. However, the peace treaties that officially ended the First World War were not signed until 1919. Even after the Korean War (July 27, 1953), after the French withdrawal from Indochina (the Geneva Accords of July 20, 1954 were rejected by the United States) or after the war in Vietnam, peace agreements concluded – only ceasefire agreements – were not put into effect. In the latter case, after five years of negotiations between the United States, North Vietnam, South Vietnam and the National Liberation Front, an agreement was finally reached on January 28, 1973. Although it had the breadth and scope of a peace treaty, it was simply an executive agreement that came into force on the American side with the signature of Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and not after senate approval. The main concern of the American treaties after the Second World War was security cooperation in a post-war climate marked by ideological conflicts with the Soviet Union, the bipolarization of the world between these two powers, the destruction of colonial empires and the emergence of nearly ninety new nations, economic inequality and dependence on nuclear weapons as a deterrent. As a result, the United States has not been able to pursue its traditional (moderate and reserved) contractual policy.
Indeed, since 1945, it has entered into more contracts (without agreement) than any other nation, and almost all have been new type. These included assistance agreements, participation in the United Nations, peace agreements, alliances, deterrence treaties and treaties that address a wide range of issues that traditionally: human rights, ecology, environment and resources, global warming, the prohibition of chemical weapons and other weapons of mass destruction, access to space and future use of space. , copyright and intellectual property protection, as well as biotechnology and human cloning. All this was done outside the procedural framework of the Potsdam Conference of 1945. On this occasion, a Council of Foreign Ministers (United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France and China) was formed to negotiate the various peace agreements, knowing that of the five countries that signed ceasefire agreements with the defeated nations, only those who had signed ceasefire agreements with the defeated nations would participate in the treaty negotiations (France is considered a signatory to a ceasefire with Italy).