The agreement, valid for three years, includes recognition of the union as an exclusive bargaining body, leave for trade union activities, paternity leave, ikea goods rebate, child care leave and personal hospitalization. For the duration of the agreement, neither the association nor the Union endeavours to amend, modify, cancel or complete their provisions, unless the parties agree. Any amendment to this agreement between the parties is jointly filed by the parties with the Clerk of the Industrial Court within thirty (30) days from the date the agreement was reached: Provided that the amendment agreement takes effect only after it has been taken into account by the Industrial Court. Any amendable agreement that the Court has been aware of is binding on the parties from the date of the insurrection and the period that may be indicated, but this period does not begin until this agreement comes into force. Unions representing faculty staff internationally have attempted to use collective bargaining as a means of making it a legal reality. At the same time, higher education has grown rapidly in almost all countries since the 1960s. Higher education has moved from a small, relatively elitist and self-managed education and research system in many countries to its current status as a large industry offering mass education. Higher education must now constantly meet the perceived needs of economic policies, the labour market and education, which have been facilitated by the increased use of market mechanisms and private contributions, both students (tuition fees) and businesses (to finance research). Equal pay provisions for work of equal value (comparable value) open up a wider area of challenge, but this strategy has proved difficult to implement. Historical bias in the assessment of “female” occupations has not been easy to eliminate, as even fairly detailed methods of job evaluation can maintain aspects of gender bias and, in fact, perpetuate existing hierarchies (Steinberg 1992). In addition, the cases have proven to be complex and time-consuming. However, the comparable value allows for a review of the assessment of work and is particularly important given the clear resistance of occupational segregation patterns to change. It will be most effective when the margin of comparison is wide and the results will collectively apply to the types of jobs and not to individuals.
12 See Paul Weiler, “Reconcilable Differences: New Directions in Canadian Labour Law,” Carswell Toronto, 1980, 25; John Pencavel, “The legal framework for collective bargaining in developing economies” (1996) at 10. Within 21 days of the signing of this collective agreement, the Union sends the Bank a list of names of its IRC members. The union notifies the Bank within 21 days when the list of IRC members is updated and amended. The main services provided by unions to members are negotiations and representations. Collective bargaining provides unions with a way to defend and improve the well-being of members through better, safer and healthier working conditions.